The name Miltaburra and where it came from is a mystery. It is believed it was derived from Maildaburra, which is the section of land that Miltaburra is situated on.
A new school for the area started to be discussed in the 1960's. A steering committee was formed and the idea was proposed to the Haslam School Council in 1966. The plan was to close down five other rural schools which were in the area- Haslam, Mudamuckla, Nunjikompita, Smoky Bay and Wirrulla.
In 1975 it was planned that two area schools-Miltaburra and Karcultaby, would be built at the same time. However, just before construction started on Miltaburra, secondary numbers fell. The project was then deferred for an indefinite time.
In 1978, the Miltaburra Steering Committee sent off a detailed submission to the Minister for Education requesting provision of an area school, and in November 1979, the plans began to be drawn up.
Miltaburra was the first South Australian public school to have parents help with the planning and designing. The final plans were accepted and approved by the Planning Committee in November 1980.
Construction of the school began in June 1983 and the first Principal, John Hannath, was appointed in October. The school opened in February 1984 with 144 students. It was officially opened by Hon. Lynn M. F. Arnold (Minister of Education) on July 27th 1984.
Miltaburra currently has about 65 students.